La Guía de NetBSD

Esta es una traducción de la Guía de NetBSD: http://www.netbsd.org/guide/en/index.html.

Este documento puede contener errores de traducción. Por favor si desea informar de errores encontrados en esta versión en castellano o tiene cualquier sugerencia, envíaela a:crass2002@hotmail.com

Traducción: SALISHAN

Desarrolladores de NetBSD

Todas las marcas y nombres de productos útilizados en esta guía son o pueden ser marcas registradas o marcas registradas certificadas de sus respectivos dueños.

NetBSD® es una marca registrada certificada de la Fundación NetBSD, Inc.

Published: 2006/01/16 20:10:35

$NetBSD: index.html,v 1.95 2006/04/26 07:31:24 mishka Exp $


Tabla de Contenidos

Propósito de esta guía
I. Acerca de NetBSD
1. ¿Qué es NetBSD?
1.1. Historia de NetBSD
1.2. Caracteríristicas de NetBSD
1.3. Plataformas soportadas
1.4. Usuarios objetivos de NetBSD
1.5. Aplicaciones para NetBSD
1.6. La filosofía de NetBAS
1.7. Como conseguir NetBSD
II. Instalación del Sistema y cuestiones relacionadas
2. Instalación
2.1. Documentación
2.2. Disposición de una instalación de NetBSD
2.3. Instalación
2.3.1. Teclado
2.3.2. Geometrías
2.3.3. Particiones
2.3.4. Requisitos de espacio en el disco duro
2.3.5. Reintento
3. Ejemplo de Instalación
3.1. Introdución
3.2. Preparando la instalación
3.3. Creando el disco de instalación
3.4. Ultimos pasos preparatorios
3.5. Comenzando la instalación
3.6. Particiones
3.7. Disklabel
3.8. Creando una "etiqueta" de disco (disklabel)
3.9. Proceso de preparación del disco
3.10. Eligiendo el medio de instalación
3.11. Instalando desde CD-ROM y DVD
3.12. Instalando vía FTP
3.13. Extraer el sistema
3.14. Configuración del sistema
4. El primer inicio
4.1. Si algo fue mal
4.2. Inicio de Sesión
4.3. Cambiando la configuración del Teclado
4.4. El comando man
4.5. Cambiando la contraseña de root
4.6. Cambiando el intérprete de comandos
4.7. Hora del sistema
4.8. Configuración básica en/etc/rc.conf
4.9. Permitiendo dependencias suaves de FFS
4.10. Reinicio del sistema
5. El segundo inicio
5.1. dmesg
5.2. Montando el CD-ROM
5.3. Montando la disquetera
5.4. Accediendo a particiones DOS/Windows
5.5. Agregar usuarios
5.6. Contraseñas shadow
5.7. Deteniendo y reiniciando el sistema
6. Sistema rc.d
6.1. La configuración del rc.d
6.2. Los Scripts rc.d
6.3. Las Reglas de rcorder y rc Scripts
6.4. Lectura Adicional
III. Configuración del sistema, administración y personalización
7. Editando
7.1 Introducción a vi
7.1.1. La interfaz vi
7.1.2. Cambiando al Modo Edición
7.1.3. Cambiando Modos y Guardando Buffers en un Archivo
7.1.4. Copiando y Pegando
7.1.5. Navegando por el Buffer
7.1.6. Buscando un Archivo, la Ayuda Alternativa de Navegación
7.1.7. Un Ejemplo de Sesión
7.2. Configurando vi
7.2.1. Extensiones .exrc
7.2.2. Documentación
7.3. Utilizando etiquetas con vi
8. X
8.1 ¿Qué es la X?
8.2 Configuración
8.3 El ratón
8.4. The Teclado
8.5 El monitor
8.6. La tarjeta de gráfica
8.6.1 XFree 3.x
8.6.2. XFree86 4.x
8.7 Arrancando X
8.8. Personalizando X
8.9. Otros gestores de ventanas
8.10. Identificación gráfica con xdm
9. Emulando Linux
9.1. Configuración del Emulador
9.1.1. Configuring the núcleo
9.1.2. Instalando las librerias de Linux
9.1.3. Instalando Acrobat Reader
9.2. Estrutura de los directorios
9.3. Emulando / proc
10. Sonido
10.1. Elementos Básicos del hardware
10.2. Configuración de la BIOS
10.3. Configurando el dispositivo de sonido
10.4. Configuring the núcleo audio devices
10.5. Comandos avanzados
10.5.1. audioctl(1)
10.5.2. mixerctl(1)
10.5.3. audioplay(1)
10.5.4. audiorecord(1)
11. Imprimiendo
11.1 Habilitando el demonio de la impresora
11.2 Configurando/etc/printcap
11.3 Configurando Ghostscript
11.4 Comandos del gestor de Impresora
11.5 Impresión remota
12. Using removable media
12.1. Initializing and using floppy disks
12.2. How to use a ZIP disk
12.3. Reading data CDs with NetBSD
12.4. Reading multi-session CDs with NetBSD
12.5. Allowing normal users to access CDs
12.6. Mounting an ISO image
12.7. Using gráfica CDs with NetBSD
12.8. Using audio CDs with NetBSD
12.9. Creating an MP3 (MPEG layer 3) file from an audio CD
12.10. Using a CD-R writer with data CDs
12.11. Using a CD-R writer to create audio CDs
12.12. Creating an audio CD from mp3s
12.13. Copying an audio CD
12.14. Copying a data CD with two drives
12.15. Using CD-RW rewritables
12.16. DVD support
12.17. Creating ISO images from a CD
12.18. Getting volume information from CDs and ISO images
13. The cryptographic device driver (CGD)
13.1. Overview
13.1.1. Why use disk encryption?
13.1.2. Logical Disk Drivers
13.1.3. Availability
13.2. Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system
13.2.1. Núcleo driver pseudo-device
13.2.2. Ciphers
13.2.3. Verification Methods
13.3. Example: encrypting your disk
13.3.1. Preparing the disk
13.3.2. Scrubbing the disk
13.3.3. Creating the cgd
13.3.4. Modifying configuration files
13.3.5. Restoring data
13.4. Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs
13.4.1. Introdución
13.4.2. Creating an encrypted CD/DVD
13.4.3. Using an encrypted CD/DVD
13.5. Suggestions and Warnings
13.5.1. Using a random-key cgd for swap
13.5.2. Warnings
13.6. Further Reading
14. Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration
14.1. Install physical media
14.2. Configure Núcleo Support
14.3. Disklabel each volume member of the CCD
14.4. Configure the CCD
14.5. Initialize the CCD device
14.6. Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device
14.7. Mount the filesystem
15. NetBSD RAIDframe
15.1. RAIDframe Introdución
15.1.1. About RAIDframe
15.1.2. A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability
15.1.3. Getting Help
15.2. Setup RAIDframe Support
15.2.1. Núcleo Support
15.2.2. Power Redundancy and Disk Caching
15.3. Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
15.3.1. Pseudo-Process Outline
15.3.2. Hardware Review
15.3.3. Initial Install on Disk0/wd0
15.3.4. Preparing Disk1/wd1
15.3.5. Initializing the RAID Device
15.3.6. Setting up Filesystems
15.3.7. Setting up núcleo dumps
15.3.8. Migrating System to RAID
15.3.9. El primer inicio with RAID
15.3.10. Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID
15.3.11. Testing Boot Blocks
15.4. Testing núcleo dumps
16. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
16.1. About
16.2. Introdución
16.3. Terms and conventions
16.3.1. Definitions
16.3.2. Usage examples
16.4. PAM Essentials
16.4.1. Facilities and primitives
16.4.2. Modules
16.4.3. Chains and policies
16.4.4. Transactions
16.5. PAM Configuration
16.5.1. PAM policy files
16.5.2. Breakdown of a configuration line
16.5.3. Policies
16.6. PAM modules
16.6.1. Common Modules
16.6.2. FreeBSD-specific PAM Modules
16.6.3. NetBSD-specific PAM Modules
16.7. PAM Application Programming
16.8. PAM Module Programming
16.9. Sample PAM Application
16.10. Sample PAM Module
16.11. Sample PAM Conversation Function
16.12. Further Reading
17. Tuning NetBSD
17.1. Introdución
17.1.1. Overview
17.2. Tuning Considerations
17.2.1. General System Configuration
17.2.2. System Services
17.2.3. The NetBSD Núcleo
17.3. Visual Monitoring Tools
17.3.1. The top Process Monitor
17.3.2. The sysstat útility
17.4. Monitoring Tools
17.4.1. fstat
17.4.2. iostat
17.4.3. ps
17.4.4. vmstat
17.5. Network Tools
17.5.1. ping
17.5.2. traceroute
17.5.3. netstat
17.5.4. tcpdump
17.6. Accounting
17.6.1. Accounting
17.6.2. Reading Accounting Information
17.6.3. How to Put Accounting to Use
17.7. Núcleo Profiling
17.7.1. Getting Started
17.7.2. Interpretation of kgmon Output
17.7.3. Putting it to Use
17.7.4. Summary
17.8. System Tuning
17.8.1. Using sysctl
17.8.2. memfs & softdeps
17.9. Núcleo Tuning
17.9.1. Preparing to Recompile a Núcleo
17.9.2. Configuring the Núcleo
17.9.3. Building the New Núcleo
17.9.4. Shrinking the NetBSD núcleo
18. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem
18.1. How it works
18.2. Signatures file
18.3. Generating fingerprints
18.4. Strict levels
18.5. Veriexec and layered file systems
18.6. Núcleo configuration
19. Miscellaneous operations
19.1. Creating a custom install/boot floppies for i386
19.2. Synchronizing the system clock with NTP
19.3. Instalando el gestor de arranque
19.4. Deleting the disklabel
19.5. Speaker
19.6. Forgot root password?
19.7. Adding a new hard disk
19.8. Password file is busy?
19.9. How to rebuild the devices in /dev
IV. Networking and related issues
20. Introdución to TCP/IP Networking
20.1. Audience
20.2. Supported Networking Protocols
20.3. Supported Media
20.3.1. Serial Line
20.3.2. Ethernet
20.4. TCP/IP Address Format
20.5. Subnetting and Routing
20.6. Name Service Concepts
20.6.1. /etc/hosts
20.6.2. Domain Name Service (DNS)
20.6.3. Network Information Service (NIS/YP)
20.6.4. Other
20.7. Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6
20.7.1. The Future of the Internet
20.7.2. What good is IPv6?
20.7.3. Changes to IPv4
21. Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice
21.1. A walk through the núcleo configuration
21.2. Overview of the network configuration files
21.3. Connecting to the Internet with a modem
21.3.1. Getting the connection information
21.3.2. resolv.conf and nsswitch.conf
21.3.3. Creating the directories for pppd
21.3.4. Connection script and chat file
21.3.5. Authentication
21.3.6. pppd options
21.3.7. Testing the modem
21.3.8. Activating the link
21.3.9. Using a script for connection and disconnection
21.3.10. Running commands after dialin
21.4. Creating a small home network
21.5. Setting up an Internet gateway with IPNAT
21.5.1. Configuring the gateway/firewall
21.5.2. Configuring the clients
21.5.3. Some useful commands
21.6. A common LAN setup
21.7. Connecting two PCs through a serial line
21.7.1. Connecting NetBSD with BSD or Linux
21.7.2. Connecting NetBSD and Windows NT
21.7.3. Connecting NetBSD and Windows 95
22. The Internet Super Server inetd
22.1. Overview
22.2. What is inetd?
22.3. Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf
22.4. Services - /etc/services
22.5. Protocols - /etc/protocols
22.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc
22.7. Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.{allow,deny}
22.8. Adding a Service
22.9. When to use or not to use inetd
22.10. Other Resources
23. The Domain Name System
23.1. DNS Background and Concepts
23.1.1. Naming Services
23.1.2. The DNS namespace
23.1.3. Resource Records
23.1.4. Delegation
23.1.5. Delegation to multiple servers
23.1.6. Secondaries, Caching, and the SOA record
23.1.7. Name Resolution
23.1.8. Reverse Resolution
23.2. The DNS Files
23.2.1. /etc/namedb/named.conf
23.2.2. /etc/namedb/localhost
23.2.3. /etc/namedb/zone.127.0.0
23.2.4. /etc/namedb/diverge.org
23.2.5. /etc/namedb/1.168.192
23.2.6. /etc/namedb/root.cache
23.3. Using DNS
23.4. Setting up a caching only name server
23.4.1. Testing the server
24. Mail and news
24.1. sendmail
24.1.1. Configuration with genericstable
24.1.2. Testing the configuration
24.1.3. Using an alternative MTA
24.2. fetchmail
24.3. Reading and writing mail with mutt
24.4. Strategy for receiving mail
24.5. Strategy for sending mail
24.6. Advanced mail tools
24.7. News with tin
25. Miscellaneous networking topics
25.1. Bridge
25.1.1. Bridge example
25.2. Network File System (NFS)
25.2.1. NFS setup example
25.3. Setting up NFS automounting for /net with amd(8)
25.3.1. Introdución
25.3.2. Actual setup
25.4. IPv6 Connectivity & Transition vía 6to4
25.4.1. Getting 6to4 IPv6 up & running
25.4.2. Obtaining IPv6 Address Space for 6to4
25.4.3. How to get connected
25.4.4. Security Considerations
25.4.5. Data Needed for 6to4 Setup
25.4.6. Núcleo Preparation
25.4.7. 6to4 Setup
25.4.8. Quickstart using pkgsrc/net/hf6to4
25.4.9. Known 6to4 Relay Routers
25.4.10. Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall
25.4.11. Conclusion & Further Reading
V. Building the system
26. Obtaining the sources
26.1. Preparing directories
26.2. Terminology
26.3. Downloading tarballs
26.3.1. Downloading a NetBSD release
26.3.2. Downloading snapshots from a NetBSD stable branch
26.3.3. Downloading the NetBSD-current development branch
26.3.4. Downloading a pkgsrc-200xQy stable branch
26.3.5. Downloading the pkgsrc-current development branch
26.4. Fetching by CVS
26.4.1. Getting CVS
26.4.2. Fetching a NetBSD release
26.4.3. Fetching a NetBSD stable branch
26.4.4. Fetching the NetBSD-current development branch
26.4.5. Fetching a pkgsrc-200xQy stable branch
26.4.6. Fetching the pkgsrc-current development branch
26.4.7. Saving some cvs(1) options
26.5. Sources on CD (ISO)
27. Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh
27.1. Building the crosscompiler
27.2. Configuring the núcleo manually
27.3. Crosscompiling the núcleo manually
27.4. Crosscompiling the núcleo with build.sh
27.5. Crosscompiling the userland
27.6. Crosscompiling the X Window System
27.7. Changing build behaviour
27.7.1. Changing the Destination Directory
27.7.2. Static Builds
27.7.3. Using build.sh options
27.7.4. make(1) variables used during build
28. Compiling the núcleo
28.1. Requirements and procedure
28.2. Installing the núcleo sources
28.3. Creating the núcleo configuration file
28.4. Building the núcleo manually
28.4.1. Configuring the núcleo manually
28.4.2. Generating dependencies and recompiling manually
28.5. Building the núcleo using build.sh
28.6. Installing the new núcleo
28.7. Si algo fue mal
29. Console drivers
29.1. wscons
29.1.1. Virtual consoles
29.1.2. 50 lines text mode with wscons
29.1.3. Teclado mappings
29.1.4. Cut&paste on the console with wsmoused
29.1.5. Enable scrollback on the console
29.2. pccons
30. The package collection
30.1. Installing the package collection
30.2. Updating the package collection
30.3. Example: installing a program from source
30.3.1. Downloading the sources
30.3.2. Compiling and installing
30.4. Example: installing a binary package
30.5. Package management commands
30.6. Creating Your Own Packages
30.6.1. Tools
30.6.2. Getting Started
30.6.3. Filling in the Rest
30.6.4. Checking with pkglint
30.6.5. Running and Checking Build/Installs
30.6.6. Submitting a Package Using send-pr
30.6.7. Final Notes
A. Information
A.1. Where to get this document
A.2. Guide history
B. Contributing to La Guía de NetBSD
B.1. Translating the guide
B.1.1. What you need to start a translation
B.1.2. Writing XML/DocBook
B.2. Sending contributions
B.3. XML/DocBook template
C. Getting started with XML/DocBook
C.1. What is XML/DocBook
C.2. Installing the necessary tools
C.3. Using the tools
C.4. Language-specific notes
C.4.1. Enabling hyphenation for the Italian language
C.5. Links
D. Acknowledgements
D.1. Original acknowledgements
D.2. Current acknowledgements
D.3. Licenses
D.3.1. Federico Lupi's original license of this guide
D.3.2. Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article
E. Bibliography
Bibliography

List of Figures

2.1. Particiones
3.1. Selecting the language
3.2. The main men´ of the Instalación program
3.3. Confirming you want to install NetBSD
3.4. Choosing a hard disk
3.5. Full or custom Instalación
3.6. Selecting distribution sets
3.7. Choosing the partitioning scheme
3.8. Choosing a unit of measure
3.9. fdisk
3.10. Partition options
3.11. Installing the boot selector
3.12. Choosing if Particiones should be edited
3.13. Setting partition sizes
3.14. The disklabel editor
3.15. The disklabel editor
3.16. Naming the NetBSD disk
3.17. Last chance before hitting the disk
3.18. Creating the filesystems
3.19. Selecting a bootblock
3.20. Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process
3.21. Instalación media
3.22. CD-ROM/DVD Instalación
3.23. Which network interface to configure
3.24. Choosing network media options
3.25. Using DHCP for network configuration
3.26. Entering and configuring network data
3.27. Confirming network parameters
3.28. Which directory to use for downloading
3.29. Defining the set's source place
3.30. An error happened during download
3.31. Downloading Instalación sets
3.32. Extracting set files
3.33. Deleting sets after extraction?
3.34. Set extraction completed
3.35. Selecting your system's time zone
3.36. Selecting a password encryption scheme
3.37. Setting the root password now or later?
3.38. Setting the root password
3.39. Choosing a shell for the root account
3.40. Congratulations
3.41. Reboot the system to finish Instalación
15.1. RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout
15.2. Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0
15.3. Setup RAID Set
15.4. Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID
15.5. Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0
15.6. Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1
15.7. Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0
20.1. IPv4-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits
20.2. Our demo-network
20.3. Attaching one subnet to another one
20.4. IPv6-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits, too
20.5. IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses
20.6. Several interfaces attached to a link result in only one scope ID for the link
21.1. Network with gateway
24.1. Structure of the mail system
25.1. A frequently used method for transition is tunneling IPv6 in IPv4 packets
25.2. 6to4 derives an IPv6 from an IPv4 address
25.3. Request and reply can be routed vía different gateways in 6to4
25.4. Enabling packet forwarding is needed for a 6to4 router

List of Tables

16.1. PAM chain execution summary
18.1. Veriexec fingerprints tools
18.2. Veriexec access type aliases

List of Examples

11.1. /etc/printcap
11.2. /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter
11.3. /etc/printcap
11.4. /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter-ps
21.1. resolv.conf
21.2. nsswitch.conf
21.3. Connection script
21.4. Chat file
21.5. Chat file with login
21.6. /etc/ppp/options
21.7. ppp-start
21.8. ppp-stop
21.9. /etc/hosts
23.1. strider's /etc/hosts file
23.2. localhost
26.1. .cvsrc